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Cortex Orbitofrontalis, Orbitofrontal Cortex

Orbitofrontal Cortex Functions

Emotion control, impulse control, (social) adjustment

Appraisal of the emotional and motivational values of environmental information, (while integrating the subject's prior experience), which is crucial in decision-making S

Operant Conditioning: the use of consequences (reward, punishment) to modify the occurrence and form of behavior S, reaction to punishers - like ostracism - and reinforcers - like food and praise - (evaluation S, monitoring, learning, storage), and the resulting behavior; context-dependent regulation of amygdala-dependent autonomic and behavioral arousal governed by external cues S; craving (nicotine) S; fear extinction (mOFC) S

Selection, comparison, and evaluation of stimuli; prediction error signaling (mOFC, S) and the detection of contingency change; important for outcome-guided behavior: error detection, evaluation of expected outcomes, rapid recognition of unexpected outcomes, and the change of behavior that's called for ("reversal learning" S), learning by mistakes and unexpected outcomes S

Decision making, expectancies; sensory integration; access to emotional memory S; episodic memory S

Sources: left: Wikipedia; right: "Neurology of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders"

Orbitofrontal Gyrus * Posterior: emotion recognition; strong connections to the amygdala and anterior parts of the temporal lobe as well as to the sensory association cortex S

Interpretation S and processing of environmental emotional and motivational context information S, e.g. facial expressions S, emotion recognition and empathy S; sympathy/ preference (unknown faces) S

* Anterolateral: negative affects and obsessions S


General impairments involving stimulus-reward reversal learning, response inhibition, and ability to judge the appropriateness of one's own behavior in the social context S;
Borderline PD S,
Addiction S, S,
Depression S,
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder S, (right hemisphere) S, S (dopaminergic hyperfunction),
Anxiety Disorders S,
Chronic Schizophrenia S, S,
(Heterosexual) Pedophilia (hypoactivity) S, S

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