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Epilepsy - Brain Regions and their Dysfunctions


"Cerebellar neuromodulation was followed by a 78% reduction in tonic and tonic-clonic seizures, CM-pf (nucleus of the thalamus) neuromodulation by an 83% reduction in tonic-clonic seizures and atypical absence of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, with a 17.2% seizure-free and drug-free patient rate. Hippocampal neuromodulation was followed by a 73% reduction in partial complex seizures, with a 33% seizure-free patient rate. Anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus was followed by a 63% reduction in tonic-clonic, tonic and atonic seizures." S
Affected Region Dysfunctions
Temporal lobe "We discuss a "network inhibition hypothesis" in which focal temporal lobe seizure activity disrupts normal cortical-subcortical interactions, leading to depressed neocortical function and impaired consciousness." S
Dentate gyrus "Seizure activity (...) influences dentate granule cell neurogenesis. Production of adult-born neurons increases in rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy, and both newborn and pre-existing granule neurons contribute to aberrant axonal reorganization in the epileptic hippocampus. Prolonged seizures also disrupt the migration of dentate granule cell progenitors and lead to hilar-ectopic granule cells. The ectopic granule neurons appear to integrate abnormally and contribute to network hyperexcitability. Similar findings of granule cell layer dispersion and ectopic granule neurons in human TLE suggest that aberrant neurogenesis contributes to epileptogenesis or learning and memory disturbances in this epilepsy syndrome." S
Amygdala "The amygdala, a temporal lobe structure that is most well known for its central role in emotional behavior, also plays a key role in epileptogenesis and epilepsy." Glutamatergic and GABAergic systems play a role in in epileptogenesis and epilepsy in the amygdala S
Thalamus "Research into the mechanism of action of VNS has revealed a crucial role for the thalamus and cortical areas that are important in the epileptogenic process." S
Mammillary body "(...) subcortical neuronal structures, such as the MB, may sustain epileptiform discharges in humans." S
Cerebellum "Cerebellar neuromodulation was followed by a 78% reduction in tonic and tonic-clonic seizures (...)" S

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