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Basal ganglia: Caudate nucleus, Putamen, Substantia nigra and Lateral ventricles

Basal ganglia



Location of the basal ganglia. Source: (edited)

Disorders: Cerebral palsy, Dystonia; Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease S; Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder S; ADHD S, S, Tourette Syndrome S, Stuttering, Wilson's disease; Schizophrenia S; Depression S; Sexual disorders S, Neurodegeneration associated with brain iron accumulation S
Functions: Motor skills; motion selection, initiation and control: information transfer from the (P)FC and the parietal cortex via the basal ganglia and the thalamus up to the SMA (part of the motor cortex); above all inhibition of unwanted/ inappropriate movements but also coordination of volitional movements, postures S

Procedural memory

Attention (dopamine) S; processing of different emotional and cognitive stimuli (reward system, reinforcement, Addiction, habits) S (see below)

Modulation of pain perception S

Quod vide: Claustrum, Striatum, Nucleus caudatus, Globus pallidus, Nucleus accumbens und Putamen
Putamen Putamen. Source


Functions: Consciousness; joining of different attributes into one object (sensory synchronization); synchronization of different perceptual, cognitive and motor modalities S; claustrocortical network for sensory integration S

Processing of visual sexual stimuli

Caudate nucleus

Functions: Movement control S, Motor memory (Dopamine) S

Language control (left: changes in the language or the meaning of words) S; Speech processing (e.g. ambivalence) S

Perceptual skill learning S; Reaction to positive and negative feedback during learning S, left hemisphere: detection of a change in the 'context' and the subsequent formulation of a new 'rule' S; the linking of action to outcome S

Obsessions, compulsions S

Memory S, working memory S; Visualization of emotional events in the near future; concrete simulations of action plans to achieve rewarding situations in the near future S

Love S, motherly love S

Pain S

Disorders: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder S, S; Major Depression (left hemisphere) S, Parkinson's Disease (Serotonin) S, Huntington's Disease S, S; Schizophrenia S; Autism S; Addiction (Cocaine) S

Globus pallidus

Functions: Motion facilitation (lateral segment) and motion inhibition (medial segment); acts as an "antagonist" of the Striatum; sends inhibiting impulses to the Thalamus and the Nucleus subthalamicus

Important part of the reward system S

Sexual arousal and behavior S

Tourette Syndrome (GABA) S, Parkinson's Disease (GPI) S, Huntington's Disease S, Anhedonia/ Depression S; Dyskinesia S, Dystonia S, Tremor, Acampsia, Bradykinesia; Addiction (Cocaine; ventral) S, loss of craving S; Pedophilia S, Progressive supranuclear palsy S


Functions: 'Entrance' to the basal ganglia; strong interconnections to the neocortex; attention -> many dopamine receptors S

Working memory S; skill acquisition (cognitive, perceptive, motor) S

Executive: Interplay of motivation, emotion, cognition and motion on a neuronal level

Activation by rewards S (dopamine, ventral) S and by aversive, novel, unexpected or very intense stimuli

Sexual arousal and behavior S

* Ventral: Preparation, initiation and execution of reward-related behavior as a result of successful integration of (relevant) emotional and cognitive information (strong connections to the OFC and the ACC) S even when rewards were cued but omitted S

* Dorsal: Reward system, adjustments after delivered rewards S, categorization S

Disorders: Striatofrontal dysfunction: Depression S, S, Chronic Schizophrenia S, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder S (serotonergic hypofunction), Borderline PD S, Pedophilia S, ADHD S, Tremor S, Parkinson's Disease (Dopamine), Huntington's Disease (GABA) S, S; Athetosis, Dyskinesia; Addiction (Dopamine) S, S; Anorexia Nervosa S

Nucleus accumbens

Functions: Important part of the reward system, emotional learning, operant conditioning, motivation S, selbst-reference S; sympathy/ preference (unknown faces) S; empathy/ friendship S; craving S

Disorders: Addiction S, Depression S, S; Bipolar Disorder S


Functions: Reinforcement learning; efficiency S

Motor memory (Dopamine) S

Speech processing (e.g. ambivalence) S

Disorders: Huntington's Disease S, Parkinson's Disease (Serotonin) S, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder S; Addiction (Cocaine) S

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